Learn Tulu Grammar – Verbs

Verbs in Tulu – ತುಳು ಕ್ರಿಯಾಪದಗಳು

A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English. The word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen.

Tulu verbs have 3 forms(ರೂಪಗಳು), 3 tenses(ಕಾಲಗಳು), 6 moods(ಭಾವಗಳು) and 6 conjugations(ಆಖ್ಯಾತ)

1. Forms of the Verb:
1.1. Active – ಸಕ್ರಿಯ
1.2. Causative – ಕಾರಕ
1.3. Reflective – ಪ್ರತಿಸ್ಪಂದಿತ

A number of Intransitive verbs become transitive by changing the terminating letter “ಯು” yu, into “ಪು” pu. For example:
ಮುಗಿಯು, mugiyu, to cease -> ಮುಗಿಪು, mugipu, to finish.
ಕಡೆಯು, kadeyu, grind -> ಕಡೆಪು, kadepu, to grind.
ಪರಿಯು, pariyu, to tear -> ಪರಿಪು, paripu, to tear, to make it tear.
ಉರಿಯು, uriyu – to burn -> ಉರಿಪು, uripu, to blow.
ಒರಿಯು, oriyu, to remain -> ಓರಿಪು, oripu, to keep, to preserve.
ನಡೆಯು, nadeyu, to walk -> ನಡಪು, nadapu, walk

2. Tenses of the Verb:
2.1 Present Tense – ವರ್ತಮಾನಕಾಲ
2.2 Past Tense – ಭೂತಕಾಲ
2.3 Future Tense – ಭವಿಷ್ಯತ್‌ಕಾಲ

Each of the Past and Future Tenses has two forms: 1. Imperfect and Perfect Past and 2. 1st and 2nd Future.

3. Moods of the Verb:
3.1 Indicative – ಸೂಚಕ
3.2 Imperative – ಕಡ್ಡಾಯ
3.3 Conditional – ಷರತ್ತು
3.4 Infinitive – ಕರ್ತೃ
3.5 Potential – ಸಂಭಾವ್ಯ
3.6 Subjunctive – ಸಂಭಾವನಾರ್ಥಕ

Each of which has 1. Positive and 2. Negative form.

4. Conjugation(ಆಖ್ಯಾತ) of the Verb:
There are two principal conjugations

1. Those in which the participle of the present tense terminates in “ಉ” ( u ).
2. Those in which terminates in “ಪಿ” ( pi ).

Each of these two classes has three sub-divisions, the characteristic differences of which appear in the present, past and future tenses of the Indicative, from which all remaining forms may be said to be derived. Accordingly, there are 6 conjugations.

Examples of participle terminate in “ಉ” ( u ) and “ಪಿ” ( pi ):

ಮಲ್ಪು, malpu, makingಮಲ್ಪುವೆ, malpuve, I makeಮಲ್ತೆ, malthe, I madeಮಲ್ಪೆ, malpe, I shall make
ಕುಲ್ಲು, kullu, sittingಕುಲ್ವೆ, kullve, I sitಕುಲ್ಲ್ದೆ, kulde, I satkullove, I shall sit
ಬೂರು, booru, fallingಬೂರ್‌ವೆ, boorve, I fallಬೂರಿಯೆ, booriye, I fellಬೂರೆ, boore, I shall fell
ಪರ್ಪಿ, parpi, drinkingಪರ್ಪೆ, parpe, I drinkಪರ್ಯೆ, pariye, I drankಪರುವೆ, paruve, I shall drink
ಕೊರ್ಪಿ, korpi, givingಕೊರ್ಪೆ, korpe, I giveಕೊರಿಯೆ, koriye, I gaveಕೊರುವೆ, koruve, I shall give
ತಿಂಪಿ, thinpi, eatingತಿಂಪೆ, thinpe, I eatತಿಂದೆ, thinde, I ateತಿನುವೆ, thinuve, I shall eat

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