Verbs in Tulu – ತುಳು ಕ್ರಿಯಾಪದಗಳು
A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English. The word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen.
Tulu verbs have 3 forms(ರೂಪಗಳು), 3 tenses(ಕಾಲಗಳು), 6 moods(ಭಾವಗಳು) and 6 conjugations(ಆಖ್ಯಾತ)
1. Forms of the Verb:
1.1. Active – ಸಕ್ರಿಯ
1.2. Causative – ಕಾರಕ
1.3. Reflective – ಪ್ರತಿಸ್ಪಂದಿತ
A number of Intransitive verbs become transitive by changing the terminating letter “ಯು” yu, into “ಪು” pu. For example:
ಮುಗಿಯು, mugiyu, to cease -> ಮುಗಿಪು, mugipu, to finish.
ಕಡೆಯು, kadeyu, grind -> ಕಡೆಪು, kadepu, to grind.
ಪರಿಯು, pariyu, to tear -> ಪರಿಪು, paripu, to tear, to make it tear.
ಉರಿಯು, uriyu – to burn -> ಉರಿಪು, uripu, to blow.
ಒರಿಯು, oriyu, to remain -> ಓರಿಪು, oripu, to keep, to preserve.
ನಡೆಯು, nadeyu, to walk -> ನಡಪು, nadapu, walk
2. Tenses of the Verb:
2.1 Present Tense – ವರ್ತಮಾನಕಾಲ
2.2 Past Tense – ಭೂತಕಾಲ
2.3 Future Tense – ಭವಿಷ್ಯತ್ಕಾಲ
Each of the Past and Future Tenses has two forms: 1. Imperfect and Perfect Past and 2. 1st and 2nd Future.
3. Moods of the Verb:
3.1 Indicative – ಸೂಚಕ
3.2 Imperative – ಕಡ್ಡಾಯ
3.3 Conditional – ಷರತ್ತು
3.4 Infinitive – ಕರ್ತೃ
3.5 Potential – ಸಂಭಾವ್ಯ
3.6 Subjunctive – ಸಂಭಾವನಾರ್ಥಕ
Each of which has 1. Positive and 2. Negative form.
4. Conjugation(ಆಖ್ಯಾತ) of the Verb:
There are two principal conjugations
1. Those in which the participle of the present tense terminates in “ಉ” ( u ).
2. Those in which terminates in “ಪಿ” ( pi ).
Each of these two classes has three sub-divisions, the characteristic differences of which appear in the present, past and future tenses of the Indicative, from which all remaining forms may be said to be derived. Accordingly, there are 6 conjugations.
Examples of participle terminate in “ಉ” ( u ) and “ಪಿ” ( pi ):
|PARTICIPLE IN U, ಉ|
|ಮಲ್ಪು, malpu, making||ಮಲ್ಪುವೆ, malpuve, I make||ಮಲ್ತೆ, malthe, I made||ಮಲ್ಪೆ, malpe, I shall make|
|ಕುಲ್ಲು, kullu, sitting||ಕುಲ್ವೆ, kullve, I sit||ಕುಲ್ಲ್ದೆ, kulde, I sat||kullove, I shall sit|
|ಬೂರು, booru, falling||ಬೂರ್ವೆ, boorve, I fall||ಬೂರಿಯೆ, booriye, I fell||ಬೂರೆ, boore, I shall fell|
|PARTICIPLE IN PI|
|ಪರ್ಪಿ, parpi, drinking||ಪರ್ಪೆ, parpe, I drink||ಪರ್ಯೆ, pariye, I drank||ಪರುವೆ, paruve, I shall drink|
|ಕೊರ್ಪಿ, korpi, giving||ಕೊರ್ಪೆ, korpe, I give||ಕೊರಿಯೆ, koriye, I gave||ಕೊರುವೆ, koruve, I shall give|
|ತಿಂಪಿ, thinpi, eating||ತಿಂಪೆ, thinpe, I eat||ತಿಂದೆ, thinde, I ate||ತಿನುವೆ, thinuve, I shall eat|